Example 25: deri_dyncorrT and deri_dyncorrS dynamic correction channels
There are two types of dynamic errors affecting salinity measurements: response time and sensor misalignments, and thermal mass errors.
"Response time and sensor misalignments", or "C-T lag", refers to the time lag between temperature and conductivity measurements, which would result in "salinity spiking". It is generated by two separate mechanisms: the physical separation between the thermistor and the conductivity cell, and the inherent response time of the thermistor.
"Thermal mass errors" refers to the thermal mass of the conductivity cell impacting the temperature of the water column where the seawater conductivity is measured. It occurs when the CTD travels through a temperature gradient. Thermal mass errors present two main separate timescales: a long-term thermal mass error (timescales of minutes) and a short-term thermal mass error (timescales of seconds).
In order to correct all those dynamic errors, the logger provides two channels (temp38 and sal_01) that implement the dynamic correction equations (supported since firmware 1.144) . They rely on two types of equations: deri_dyncorrT (temperature in °C) and deri_dyncorrS (salinity in PSU).
The C-T lag correction and the short-term thermal mass correction are only applied when the sample is acquired while the instrument is actively logging at a sampling rate of at least 1Hz.
The long-term thermal mass correction is only applied when the sample is acquired while the instrument is actively logging at a sampling rate of at least 0.1Hz.
deri_dyncorrT equation
If the sample is acquired or fetched while actively logging at a sampling rate greater or equal to 1Hz:
Otherwise:
where:
T_{cor} is the C-T lag corrected temperature (°C)
T_{meas} is the marine temperature (°C)
F_{s } is the sampling frequency (Hz).
Δt is the C-T lag correction (s).
deri_dyncorrT coefficients name | coefficient name implemented |
---|---|
Δt | x0 |
n0 is the index of the supporting marine temperature channel (n0=3 in examples below)..
value(n0) is the final output value of this channel in degree Celsius, i.e T_{meas}.
deri_dyncorrS equation
with
and:
where:
and:
If the sample is fetched or not acquired while actively sampling at a rate faster or equal to 1Hz:
If the sample is fetched or not acquired while actively sampling at a rate faster or equal to 0.1Hz:
where:
f_{N} is the Nyquist frequency, defined as half the sampling rate F_{s}.
α(n) is the magnitude of short-term thermal mass correction and depends on the instantaneous ascent rate.
τ(n) is the time constant of short-term thermal mass correction (s) and depends on the instantaneous ascent rate.
ctcoeff(n) is the magnitude of the long-term thermal mass correction and depends on the instantaneous ascent rate.
deri_dyncorrS coefficients name | coefficient name implemented |
---|---|
α_{a} | x0 |
α_{e} | x1 |
τ_{a} | x2 |
τ_{e} | x3 |
ctcoeff_{a} | x4 |
ctcoeff_{e} | x5 |
Vp_{min} | x6 |
Vp_{max} | x7 |
Vp_{fc} | x8 |
n0 is the index of the conductivity channel. (n0=1 in examples below).
value(n0) is the final output value of this channel in mS/cm, i.e. C.n1 is the index of the sea pressure channel. (n1=2 in examples below).
value(n1) is the final output value of this channel in dbar i.e. P.n2 is the index of the C-T lag corrected temperature channel. (n2=3 in examples below).
value(n2) is the final output value of this channel in °C, i.e. T_{cor}_{ }.n3 is the index of the internal temperature of the conductivity cell channel. (n3=7 in examples below).
value(n3) is the final output value of this channel in °C, i.e. T_{cond}.
Examples
>> calibration 5 type
<< calibration 5 type = temp38
>> calibration 6 type
<< calibration 6 type = sal_01
Confirm the channel type.
>> calibration 5 datetime= 20220119163000, x0 = 0.3500
<< calibration 5 datetime= 20220119163000, x0 = 0.3500
Set the temperature coefficients.
>> calibration 6 datetime = 20220119163000, x0=0.1300, x1=5.9000, x2 = 1.0200e-00
<< calibration 6 datetime = 20220119163000, x0=0.1300, x1=5.9000, x2 = 1.0200e-00
Set the salinity coefficients provided.
>> calibration 5
<< calibration 5 type = temp38, datetime = 20220119163000, x0 = 0.3500, n0=3
>> calibration 6
<< calibration 6 type = sal_01, datetime = 20220119163000, x0 = 0.3700, x1 = -1.0300, x2 = 16.0200, x3 = -0.2600, x4 = 0.1400, x5 = -1.0000, x6 = 0.0400, x7 = 0.0500, x8 = 0.1500, n0=1, n1=2, n2=3, n3=7
Request confirmation of all temperature and salinity calibration coefficients.